Prolactin | physiology | upopmoverswea.ml
Prolactin blood test. How the Test is Performed. A blood sample is needed. How to Prepare for the Test. How the Test will Feel. Why the Test is Performed. Prolactin is usually measured when checking for pituitary tumors and the cause of: Breast milk production that is not related to childbirth galactorrhea Decreased sex drive libido in men and women Erection problems in men Not able to get pregnant infertility Irregular or no menstrual periods amenorrhea.
Prolactin: Physiologic and Pathologic Associations
What Abnormal Results Mean. People with the following conditions may have high prolactin levels: Chest wall injury or irritation Disease of an area of the brain called the hypothalamus Thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone hypothyroidism Kidney disease Pituitary tumor that makes prolactin prolactinoma Other pituitary tumors and diseases in the area of the pituitary Certain medicines can also raise prolactin level, including: Antidepressants Butyrophenones Estrogens H2 blockers Methyldopa Metoclopramide Opiate medicines Phenothiazines Reserpine Risperidone Verapamil Marijuana products can also raise prolactin level.
The following can temporarily increase prolactin levels: Emotional or physical stress occasionally High-protein meals Intense breast stimulation Recent breast exam Recent exercise Interpretation of an abnormally high prolactin blood test is complicated. Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include: Excessive bleeding Multiple punctures to locate veins Fainting or feeling lightheaded Hematoma blood buildup under the skin Infection a slight risk any time the skin is broken.
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Alternative Names. The vast majority of patients with a prolactinoma can be treated successfully using drugs which mimic the action of dopamine. The most commonly used is cabergoline. The condition of having too little prolactin circulating in the blood is called hypoprolactinaemia. This condition is very rare and may occur in people with pituitary underactivity. A decrease in the amount of prolactin secreted can lead to insufficient milk being produced after giving birth.
Prolactin: structure, function, and regulation of secretion.
Most people with low prolactin levels do not have any specific medical problems, although preliminary evidence suggests they might have reduced immune responses to some infections. About Contact Events News. Search Search. You and Your Hormones. Students Teachers Patients Browse.
Human body. Home Hormones Prolactin. In a woman who breastfeeds, the nursing baby's demand for milk actually controls the mother's supply.
When a baby sucks at the breast, the woman's pituitary gland releases more prolactin into her blood, increasing her milk production. If a mother doesn't breastfeed, her prolactin levels will return to normal shortly after giving birth. Sometimes, though, prolactin levels are elevated even if a woman isn't pregnant or breastfeeding, or in a male.
The most common cause is a prolactinoma, a usually benign not cancerous prolactin-producing tumor of the pituitary gland. Doctors may order prolactin tests to help diagnose, or monitor treatment of, prolactinoma. Symptoms of a prolactinoma include headaches, vision problems if tumor growth is causing pressure on an optic nerve , and galactorrhea milk production outside pregnancy or breastfeeding, or in a male.
The prolactin test also may be used as part of a work-up for irregular menstrual periods, fertility problems, some types of thyroid or adrenal gland dysfunction, anorexia, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. All these conditions can be associated with altered prolactin levels.
A number of medications and drugs can also stimulate the pituitary gland to release more prolactin into the blood. No special preparations are needed for this test.
However, since prolactin levels vary throughout the day and night — they're highest during sleep, just after waking up, following strenuous exercise, and during periods of emotional stress — your doctor may request that the test be performed at a certain time of day often a few hours after waking up.