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Full Text Available The paper presents a two- color digital holographic interferometer. The set-up is devoted to the study of the fundamental dynamic of unconsolidated materials. Optical configuration and algorithms to recover the optical phase of two- color digitally encoded holograms are described.

The method is based on a spatial- color -multiplexing scheme in which holographic reconstruction is performed using adapted wavelength zero-padding and reconstructing distance. Experimental results are presented in the case of granular media excited in the frequency range HzHz and exhibits the 3D movement. A real-time error-free color -correction facility for digital consumers.

It has been well known since the earliest days of color photography that color -balance in general, and facial reproduction flesh tones in particular, are of dominant interest to the consumer, and significant research resources have been expended in satisfying this need. The general problem is a difficult one, spanning the factors that govern perception and personal preference, the physics and chemistry of color reproduction, as well as wide field of color measurement specification, and analysis. However, with the advent of digital photography and its widespread acceptance in the consumer market, and with the possibility of a much greater degree of individual control over color reproduction, the field is taking on a new consumer-driven impetus, and the provision of user facilities for preferred color choice now constitutes an intense field of research.

In addition, due to the conveniences of digital technology, the collection of large data bases and statistics relating to individual color preferences have now become a relatively straightforward operation. Using a consumer preference approach of this type, we have developed a user-friendly facility whereby unskilled consumers may manipulate the color of their personal digital images according to their preferred choice. By virtue of its ease of operation and the real-time nature of the color -correction transforms, this facility can readily be inserted anywhere a consumer interacts with a digital image, from camera, printer, or scanner, to web or photo-kiosk.

Here the underlying scientific principles are explored in detail, and these are related to the practical color -preference outcomes. Examples are given of the application to the correction of images with unsatisfactory color balance, and especially to flesh tones and faces, and the nature of the consumer controls and their corresponding image transformations are explored. Estimation of color modification in digital images by CFA pattern change. Extensive studies have been carried out for detecting image forgery such as copy-move, re-sampling, blurring, and contrast enhancement. Although color modification is a common forgery technique, there is no reported forensic method for detecting this type of manipulation.

In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for estimating color modification in images acquired from digital cameras when the images are modified. Most commercial digital cameras are equipped with a color filter array CFA for acquiring the color information of each pixel. As a result, the images acquired from such digital cameras include a trace from the CFA pattern. This pattern is composed of the basic red green blue RGB colors , and it is changed when color modification is carried out on the image.

We designed an advanced intermediate value counting method for measuring the change in the CFA pattern and estimating the extent of color modification. The proposed method is verified experimentally by using 10, test images. The results confirmed the ability of the proposed method to estimate color modification with high accuracy.

All rights reserved. Digital color image encoding and decoding using a novel chaotic random generator. This paper proposes a novel chaotic system, in which variables are treated as encryption keys in order to achieve secure transmission of digital color images.

Color Management for Digital Art & Design

Since the dynamic response of chaotic system is highly sensitive to the initial values of a system and to the variation of a parameter, and chaotic trajectory is so unpredictable, we use elements of variables as encryption keys and apply these to computer internet communication of digital color images. As a result, we obtain much higher communication security. At the transmitter end, we conduct RGB level decomposition on digital color images, and encrypt them with chaotic keys, and finally transmit them through computer internet.

The same encryption keys are used to decrypt and recover the original images at the receiver end. Even if the encrypted images are stolen in the public channel, an intruder is not able to decrypt and recover the original images because of the lack of adequate encryption keys. Empirical example shows that the chaotic system and encryption keys applied in the encryption, transmission, decryption, and recovery of digital color images can achieve higher communication security and best recovered images.

A method is presented that can be used to calculate approximate Munsell coordinates of the colors produced by making a color composite from three registered images. In addition, areas of transported limonite can be discriminated from the limonite in the hydrothermally altered areas of the Goldfield mining district.

Digital camera auto white balance based on color temperature estimation clustering. Auto white balance AWB is an important technique for digital cameras. Human vision system has the ability to recognize the original color of an object in a scene illuminated by a light source that has a different color temperature from Dthe standard sun light. However, recorded images or video clips, can only record the original information incident into the sensor.

Therefore, those recorded will appear different from the real scene observed by the human. Auto white balance is a technique to solve this problem. Traditional methods such as gray world assumption, white point estimation, may fail for scenes with large color patches.

Color constancy supports cross-illumination color selection | JOV | ARVO Journals

In this paper, an AWB method based on color temperature estimation clustering is presented and discussed. First, the method gives a list of several lighting conditions that are common for daily life, which are represented by their color temperatures, and thresholds for each color temperature to determine whether a light source is this kind of illumination; second, an image to be white balanced are divided into N blocks N is determined empirically. For each block, the gray world assumption method is used to calculate the color cast, which can be used to estimate the color temperature of that block.

Third, each calculated color temperature are compared with the color temperatures in the given illumination list. If the color temperature of a block is not within any of the thresholds in the given list, that block is discarded. Fourth, the remaining blocks are given a majority selection, the color temperature having the most blocks are considered as the color temperature of the light source. Experimental results show that the proposed method works well for most commonly used light sources. The color casts are removed and the final images look natural.

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These color and pattern variations can be used to fill polygons areas on maps, charts, or diagrams. The detailed instructions, batch processing files, and variables used to construct the palette will provide the user ready access to 99 fill patterns, and aid in designing other useful combinations. The sensors and corresponding electronics detect light in a CIE XYZ color luminosity space using on-chip integrated sensors without any additional process steps, high-resolution analog-to- digital converter, and dedicated DSP algorithm. The sensor consists of a set of laterally arranged integrated photodiodes that are partly covered by metal, where color separation between the photodiodes is achieved by lateral carrier diffusion together with wavelength-dependent absorption.

The digital results are further processed by the DSP, which calculates normalized XYZ or RGB color and intensity parameters using linear transformations of the three photo diode responses by multiplication of the data with a transformation matrix, where the coefficients are extracted by training in combination with a pseudo-inverse operation and the least-mean square approximation. This article presents a color light detection system integrated in nm CMOS technology. Retinopathy online challenge: automatic detection of microaneurysms in digital color fundus photographs.

Niemeijer, M. The detection of microaneurysms in digital color fundus photographs is a critical first step in automated screening for diabetic retinopathy DR , a common complication of diabetes. To accomplish this detection numerous methods have been published in the past but none of these was compared with each. Digital data storage of core image using high resolution full color core scanner; Kokaizodo full color scanner wo mochiita core image no digital ka.

This paper reports on digitization of core images by using a new type core scanner system. This system consists of a core scanner unit equipped with a CCD camera , a personal computer and ancillary devices. As a result of carrying out a detail reproduction test on digital images of this core scanner, it was found that objects can be identified at a level of about the size of pixels constituting the image in the case when the best contrast is obtained between the objects and the background, and that in an evaluation test on visibility of concaves and convexes on core surface, reproducibility is not very good in large concaves and convexes.

Assessment of color parameters of composite resin shade guides using digital imaging versus colorimeter.

Color blindness: Signs and symptoms

This study evaluated the color parameters of resin composite shade guides determined using a colorimeter and digital imaging method. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni post hoc test. When proper object-camera distance, digital camera settings, and suitable illumination conditions are provided, digital imaging method could be used in the assessment of color parameters. Interchanging use of shade guides from different composite systems should be avoided during color selection.

Simultaneous determination of color additives tartrazine and allura red in food products by digital image analysis. A method based on digital image is described to quantify tartrazine E , yellow, and allura red E colorants in food samples. HPLC is the habitual method of reference used for colorant separation and quantification, but it is expensive, time-consuming and it uses solvents, sometimes toxic. By a flatbed scanner, which can be found in most laboratories, images of mixtures of colorants can be taken in microtitration plates.

A simple-to-obtain color fingerprint is obtained by converting the original RGB image into other color spaces and individual PLS models are built for each colorant. In this study, root mean square errors of 3. These results are slightly worse but comparable to the ones obtained by HPLC. The applicability of both methodologies to real food samples has proven to give the same result, even in the presence of a high concentration of an interfering species, provided that this interference is included in the image analysis calibration model.

Considering the colorant content found in most samples this should not be a problem though and, in consequence, the method could be extended to different food products.

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  7. Values of LODs of 1. Reevaluation of JPEG image compression to digitalized gastrointestinal endoscopic color images: a pilot study. Endoscopic images p lay an important role in describing many gastrointestinal GI disorders. The field of radiology has been on the leading edge of creating, archiving and transmitting digital images. With the advent of digital videoendoscopy, endoscopists now have the ability to generate images for storage and transmission. X-rays can be compressed X without appreciable decline in quality.

    We reported results of a pilot study using JPEG compression of bit color endoscopic images. For that study, the result indicated that adequate compression ratios vary according to the lesion and that images could be compressed to between and fold smaller than the original size without an appreciable decline in quality.

    The purpose of this study was to expand upon the methodology of the previous sty with an eye towards application for the WWW, a medium which would expand both clinical and educational purposes of color medical imags. The results indicate that endoscopists are able to tolerate very significant compression of endoscopic images without loss of clinical image quality. This finding suggests that even 1 MB color images can be compressed to well under 30KB, which is considered a maximal tolerable image size for downloading on the WWW. Software hazard analysis for nuclear digital protection system by Colored Petri Net.

    In order to ensure the safety and reliability of safety-critical digital system products and their applications, software hazard analysis is required to be performed during the lifecycle of software development. The dynamic software hazard modeling and analysis method based on Colored Petri Net is proposed and applied to the safety-critical control software of the nuclear digital protection system in this paper.

    The analysis results show that the proposed method can explain the complex interactions between software and hardware and identify the potential common cause failure in software properly and effectively. Moreover, the method can find the dominant software induced hazard to safety control actions, which aids in increasing software quality. Fiber-based real-time color digital in-line holography.